Birth: June 23, 1973 at Karatsu city, Saga pre., Japan.
Master of Arts March, 1999 (Kyoto Univ.)
Doctor of Philosophy March, 2003 (Kyoto Univ.)
- Researcher, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Japan: May, 2005- present.
- IUCN CEM-FEG member, IMBER WG-HD member, PICES S-HD Co-Chair, ICES JMS Editor, etc.
< Relevant achievements>
For last 20 years, I have been engaged in the institutional and economic analysis of fisheries co-management in Japan. For the last 6 years, I have conducted research on how existing fisheries co-management regimes can be expanded to ecosystem-based management. The main results of these works have been applied to the fisheries sites and the creation of governmental policy. Below are three examples of such experiences.
1. Creation of ecosystem-based management system with local fishers:
In 2004, the Japanese government nominated the Shiretoko Peninsula and its adjacent coastal areas (Northern tip of the Japanese archipelago) to the UNESCO World Natural Heritage List. Since then, I have been a member of the Scientific Committee of the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage area, and contributed to the creation of the first ecosystem-based management system with local fishers in Japan.
As the first step of this work, I conducted field research at the sites to collect information about the autonomous fisheries management measures (they are usually not documented in Japan) and the fisheries-related data that local fishers were collecting. Then, based on the results from the field research, I conducted institutional analysis on the relationship between existing fisheries co-management and the expected ecosystem conservation. The main result of the analysis was published as Makino M. (2005) “The Ecosystem Approach of the CBD and fisheries management in Japan”. Global Environmental Research 9: 95-104. This study identified the possible roles of local fishers and the necessary environmental policy measures for establishing desirable ecosystem-based management regime.
Then, I held on-site explanatory meetings with local fishers to discuss how they can contribute to ecosystem conservation. These works contributed to build the consensus among various fishers and local and central government on the direction of ecosystem-based management in the Shiretoko area. Local fishers are now very positively participating to the management regime, and their principal role is to manage coastal resources and monitor changes in coastal ecosystems. Also, presumably as the results of such discussions, local fishers autonomously expanded the marine protected areas, which will decrease the extinction risk of Steller’s sealions.
In 2005, the site was officially inscribed to the World Natural Heritage List, but UNESCO requested the Japanese government make a Marine Management Plan for ecosystem conservation. As a member of the Scientific Committee, I contributed to the drafting process of the plan. Also, when UNESCO-IUCN mission came to the area for the field evaluation, I explained the marine management plan and the relationship with local fishers. Findings from these experiences are published as M. Makino, H. Matsuda, Y. Sakurai. “Expanding Fisheries Co-management to Ecosystem-based management: A case in the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage, Japan”. Marine Policy, 33: 207-214 (2009).
2. Improving the autonomous management measures for coastal fisheries in Mutsu Bay.
Since 2007, I have conducted research on sea cucumber fisheries management in the Mutsu Bay, Aomori Prefecture (Northern part of Japan). As the first step, I conducted repeated field research to investigate the autonomous management measures implemented by local fishers, and summarized the results as an academic paper (M. Makino, M. Hirota, Y. Machiguchi. “Management Tool-box for sea cucumber management”. Journal of Resource and Ocean of Kuroshio (in press). [in Japanese]). In this paper, I proposed “a tool-box of coastal fisheries management” which overwhelmingly covers all the possible measures for coastal fisheries management.
Then, based on the discussions with local fishers, I set several indexes for the quantitative assessment of the management regime. The indexes are a) resource level, b) profit, c) production volume, and d) net present value of the fishing ground. I also evaluated the risks relating to these four indexes. In 2009, in close cooperation with local fishers and prefecture government, I made a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model which can quantify above indexes, and derived several fisheries management plans (M. Makino. “Choice of management options for sea cucumber fisheries: a simulation analysis” Japanese Journal of Fisheries Economics (in press). [in Japanese]). Local fishers compared these management plans and resultant indexes, and finally, the organization of fishers agreed to modify existing management measures in line with my proposal.
3. National policy formation for fostering co-management
In 2008, the national government (Fisheries Agency) requested that our agency (Fisheries Research Agency: FRA) conduct a study on the future direction of fisheries management in Japan. In 2009, FRA published the final report entitled “The Grand Design of Fisheries and Resource Management in Japan”, and I am the principal author of this report. (Related documents are M. Makino. “Grand Design of Fisheries Management in Japan”. Suisan-Shinkou 504: 1-51 (2009). [in Japanese], M. Makino. “Grand Design of Fisheries Management in Japan”. Fisheries Sector, June-August, Japan Fisheries Association: Tokyo (2010). [in Japanese], etc.) In this report, I emphasized the differences in the social roles of small-scale coastal fishers and that of large-scale offshore fishers. The main social roles of small-scale coastal fishers are 1) the core of the community-based fisheries co-management, and 2) the participants for coastal ecosystem monitoring, and 3) the promoter of local ecosystem conservation activities in cooperation with local residents, etc.
Since 2010, the Ministry of Environment, Japan, has been drafting the Marine Biodiversity Conservation Strategy, which will be published in March 2011. As an expert drafting member of this strategy, I have been contributing to foster community-based ecosystem conservation activities. For example, the Strategy outlines the utilization of locally accumulated knowledge and experiences as one of the fundamental directions of the marine biodiversity conservation policy in Japan. Also, the Strategy requires that governmental support be provided to local organizations, which will promote community-based marine biodiversity conservation activities in the future.